Results of the 2021 National Qualifying Examination for School Heads (NQESH)

PPSSH Definition of Terms

The Department of Education (DepEd) institutionalizes a set of professional standards for school heads, which articulates the professional practice expected of a quality school head. The PPSSH shall be the foundation of relevant human resource systems, policies, guidelines and mechanisms, including the recruitment, selection and placement, performance appraisal, rewards and recognition and talent management of school heads, and the basis for all their professional development programs.

Through the PPSSH, DepEd commits to:

a. support school heads in the performance of their mandates and roles in the regions, schools divisions and/or schools, including the improvement of teacher quality, and, eventually, learner achievement;

b. promote the continuing professional development and advancement of school heads based on the principles of career-long learning; and

c. help school heads reflect on and assess their own practice as they aspire for and pursue professional development.

Career Advancement

Refers to the movement in the proficiency levels of teachers and school leaders within and across their career stages, including their promotion to the next higher positions.

Career Awareness and Opportunities

As used in this document, this refers to enabling mechanisms for encouraging aspirations, developing potentials among learners, and guiding them toward any possible career paths in the future.

Culture of Research

As used in this document, this refers to institutionalizing the behavior and practice of using empirical data and logical findings in making everyday decisions and actions in the school.

Disaster Mitigation

Refers to lessening the adverse impacts of hazardous events through hazard-resistant construction and engineering, as well as improved environmental policies and public awareness (DepEd Order No. 44, s. 2018).

Disaster Preparedness

Refers to the capacities developed by institutions and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from the impacts of likely, imminent, or current hazard events or conditions. This includes establishing early warning systems, contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and supplies, creating coordination and communication mechanisms, evacuation protocols, other training and field exercises (DO 44, s. 2018).

Disaster Resiliency

Refers to the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, adapt and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions (RA10121).


As used in this document, this refers to a broad conceptual sphere of school leadership practices defined by specific strands.

Emerging Opportunities and Challenges

As used in this document, these refer to development of favorable and/or unfavorable conditions that would require a person in authority to make decisions to moderate their effects.

Inclusive Practice

Refers to an environment where all learners shall have access to and participate in all aspects of life in school, in learning centers and other places of learning (DepEd Order 21, s. 2019).


As used in this document, this refers to concrete, observable and measurable school head behaviors/practices covered in every strand.

Institutional Goals

As used in this document, these refer to the DepEd vision, mission and core values, and the school goals and objectives.

Institutional Policies

As used in this document, these refer to DepEd policies, as well as local, national laws, regulations and issuances.

Organizational Health

Refers to the capacity of the organization to integrate and sustain relationships between adherence to purpose, efficiency of processes, and commitment of people towards improved organizational performance.


Refers to the relationships and “interactions between teachers, students and the learning environment and the learning tasks.” (Murphy, 2009. p 35).

Performance Management System

Refers to “a mechanism that ensures that the employee achieves the objectives set by the organization, and the organization, on the other hand, achieves the objectives that it has set itself in its strategic plan” (CSC MC No. 6, s. 2012).

Policy Implementation

Refers to the process of following the mechanisms, procedures, roles, and responsibilities and undertaking activities, progress monitoring, and evaluation to carry out a policy (DepEd Order 13, s. 2015).

Policy Review

Refers to the evaluation of a policy to ascertain its impact with regards to the issue it sought to address (DepEd Order No. 13, s. 2015).

Professional Development Plan

As used in this document, this refers to Part IV of the Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form/Office Performance Commitment and Review Form in the Results-Based Performance Management System.

Professional Network

Refers to a connected community of educators. The community may exist online e.g., Linkedln. This is a vibrant, everchanging group of connections within which teachers share and learn. These groups reflect their values, passions, and areas of expertise.

Professional Standards

Professional practice expected of quality professionals to achieve at every stage of their career.


As used in this document, this refers to a process of systematic and reflective inquiry such as, but not limited to, action research, projects and activities found in the School Improvement Plan, Continuous Improvement Projects, and Impact Studies to improve educational practices and school performance, and resolve problems.

Rewards System

As used in this document, this refers to a mechanism to recognize performance and accomplishment of school personnel, etc.

School Facilities and Equipment

Refer to all the physical properties of a school, consisting of the grounds, buildings, and the various facilities within the school grounds and inside the school buildings (Department of Education, 2010b).

School Head

Person “responsible for administrative and instructional supervision of a school or cluster of schools” (Republic Act 9155, Section 4).

School Operations

Refer to all activities led by the school head in running or managing the school.

School Organizations

As used in this document, these refer to clubs and associations led and organized by students, school personnel, parents, and/or other stakeholders.

School Performance

As used in this document, this refers to the Key Performance Indicators on access, quality, and governance.

School Programs, Projects, and Activities

As used in this document, these refer to initiatives designed and/or implemented by the school head for the benefit of various stakeholders such as learners, school personnel, parents, and the community.


As used in this document, this refers to a specific dimension of school head practice under a domain.

Teaching Standards

As used in this document, these refer to measures of professional learning, competent practice, and effective management among teachers.

Technical Assistance

As used in this document, this refers to coaching, guiding and empowering school personnel with focus on all the aspects of education management, highlighting the provision of access, quality and relevance as well as the provision and improvement of management services.

Wider School Community

As used in this document, this refers to both internal and external stakeholders.

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